Two Long-term Problems: Too Many People, Too Few Trees- Class 12 Heritage of words

Two Long-term Problems: Too Many People, Too Few Trees [Moti Nissani ]

The essay ‘Two Long-term Problems: Too Many People, Too Few Trees’ is about the burning problems as faced by the world in the modern civilization. It is written by an eminent scholar, Moti Nissani, which was written for the Heritage of Words particularly. This essay provides a brief introduction to the twin problems of overpopulation and deforestation. In addition to them, some other problems such as soil erosion, desertification, extinction of species, global environmental decline, ozone layer depletion, acid rain, greenhouse effect etc. are some of the interrelated aspects of the modern civilization. Noble prize winners and scientists of the world have expressed their concerns about such a state of the biosphere. They are of the opinion that human activities inflict damage on the environment and resources. If the collision between the human society and the natural world is not avoided, there will be a dark future for the mankind. People will suffer from cancer, asthma, premature hearing loss, fear about poisons in food and water etc. Our activities are responsible for the degradation around.
The writer limits himself to two major challenges: overpopulation and deforestation. They are interrelated. In the past, there as a balance between birth rate and death rate. However, the situation began to change with the advances in nutrition, sanitation and health. Consequently, people live longer than before. For this reason, the balance between deaths and births is significantly disturbed. This results into rapid growth of human population. For instance, Nepal’s population was only nine millions in 1951. Now it has reached 23 millions. If the same growth rate continues, it will reach 46 million by the year 2026 A.D.
It is obvious that overpopulation is connected with deforestation. The increased people start destroying the forest for the cultivated land. Because of this reason, thousands of trees have been felled down in the third world including Nepal. In addition to overpopulation, there are many factors which are found to be responsible for the deforestation. For instance, because of the love for hamburgers in the western part of the world, a large portion of the tropical rain forests is being cleared and converted into pastures. In the same way, for the production of newspapers all over the world, many trees are felled down. Moreover pollution, tourism, construction of houses and factories are causing the deforestation in large scale. This kind of destruction will have adverse effect on the society. It contributes to the greenhouse effect, loss of species, landslides, soil erosion, weather extremes etc. Consequently, they damage the quality of life on earth and hamper the ability of the biosphere to sustain life.
In order to take hold of the future, the process of deforestation should be reversed. For that, population pressure on forest is to be eased. Participatory democracies and economic sufficiency should be attained. The efficiency in the use of preserving the forests in a new style while motivating the people for massive tree plantation. At the same time, people should be made aware about the benefits of reforestation so that they can do their duty with great enthusiasm. Above all, we need the wisdom, courage and compassion to make it a reality. 
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Important Questions from Too Long Term Problems: Too Many People, Too Few Trees by Moti Nissani
Short Answer Questions
1. How can we save our forests? [2062] 2. What leads Moti Nissani to the belief that the world is facing an overpopulation problem? [2067] 3. According to Nissani, what is wrong with treeless Nepal? Illustrate. [2069]
Long Answer Questions
1. Explain the links between overpopulation and deforestation. 2058] 2. What are the causes, consequences and cures of over population and deforestation? [2061, 2066]
Glossary: [eminent: famous, inflict: to make someone suffer, premature: happening too soon than the usual time, tropical: having hot weather, pastures: an area of land with grass where animals can feed]


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